[1]项贤明.新中国70 年教育观变革的回顾与反思[J].南京师大学报(社会科学版),2019,(02):015-29.
 XIANG Xianming.A Review of the Changes in China’s Outlook on Education Since 1949[J].Journal of Nanjing Normal University (Social Science Edition),2019,(02):015-29.
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新中国70 年教育观变革的回顾与反思
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《南京师大学报》(社会科学版)[ISSN:1006-6977/CN:61-1281/TN]

卷:
期数:
2019年02期
页码:
015-29
栏目:
本刊特稿
出版日期:
2019-03-30

文章信息/Info

Title:
A Review of the Changes in China’s Outlook on Education Since 1949
作者:
项贤明
南京师范大学教育科学学院, 210098
Author(s):
XIANG Xianming
XIANG Xianming, PhD in education, is Professor and PhD Supervisor at School ofEducation Science, Nanjing Normal University ( Nanjing 210097 ).
关键词:
新中国70 年教育观教育政策
Keywords:
70 years since 1949 outlook on education educational policy
摘要:
教育观是我们对教育现象和教育问题的基本看法。建国初期,我们把教育同时看作社会主义建设和社会主义改造的工具。到20 世纪60 年代中期,由于错误地估计了教育界的形势,将教育简单当作阶级斗争的工具,导致我国教育在1966 年陷入了十年特殊时期的混乱。改革开放40 年来,我国的教育观发生了一系列重要而深刻的变革。教育,先是从阶级斗争的工具转而成为社会主义现代化建设的基础;接着又从改革开放初期的强调基本知识和基本技能,转而重视培养全面完整的人的素质;然后又完成了从提高劳动者素质以促进经济发展,到提升整个民族素质以实现中华民族伟大复兴的一次飞跃;进而提出全人类通过教育共创美好未来。这一系列的教育观变革,反映了我们对我国教育事业发展的规律性的认识在不断深化。面向未来,我们要进一步做好宏观教育观向具体政策措施的转化工作,引导和促进地方政府和学校的教育创新实践,改革再出发。
Abstract:
The outlook on education refers to our basic views on education. In the early years of the People’sRepublic of China, we regarded education as a tool for socialist construction and socialist transformation.By the year of 1966, due to the wrong understanding of the situation of the education sector, we simply tookeducation as a tool of class struggle, resulting in plunging the education system into a decade of chaos inChina’s mainland. Over the last 40 years of the reform and opening up, a series of important and profoundchanges have taken place in our outlook on educational policy. The function of education in our policyidea has shifted from the tool of class struggle to the foundation of socialist modernization at first, and thenturned from emphasizing basic knowledge and skills at the beginning of reform and opening up to attachingimportance to the cultivation of a completed man. After that, we have taken a great leap from taking theeducation as an important way of improving the quality of human resources to promote economic developmentto taking it as a fundamental approach to improving the quality of the whole population in order to achieve agreat rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and then proposed that people in all over the world should createa better future through education. This series of changes in our idea on educational policy reflects ourdeepening understanding of the logic behind the development of education in China. In the future, we shouldfurther do a good job to turn the idea of macroscopic policy of education into specific measures, and throughsystematic discussions to deepen the whole society’s understanding of the outlook on educational policy. Wehave to keep the original purpose in mind, encourage each other to march forward, and further the reform topromote the educational innovation practice of local governments and schools.

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
项贤明,教育学博士,南京师范大学教育科学学院教授、博士生导师(南京 210097)。本文系国家社会科学基金“十三五”规划2018 年度教育学重点课题“改革开放40 年教育改革发展的回顾与反思”(AOA180006)的中期研究成果之一。
更新日期/Last Update: 2019-03-30